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Large numbers of clay and stone incised spools and whorls attest to local cloth-making. There are fine ground axe and mace heads of colored stone: greenstone , serpentine , diorite and jadeite , as well as obsidian knives and arrowheads along with the cores from which they were flaked.
Most significant among the other small items were a large number of animal and human figurines, including nude sitting or standing females with exaggerated breasts and buttocks.
Evans attributed them to the worship of the Neolithic mother goddess and figurines in general to religion. Among the items found in Knossos is a Minoan depiction of a goddess flanked by two lionesses that shows a goddess who appears in many other images.
John Davies Evans no relation to Arthur Evans undertook further excavations in pits and trenches over the palace, focusing on the Neolithic.
They lived in wattle and daub huts, kept animals, grew crops, and, in the event of tragedy, buried their children under the floor. In such circumstances as they are still seen today, a hamlet consisted of several families, necessarily interrelated, practicing some form of exogamy , living in close quarters, with little or no privacy and a high degree of intimacy, spending most of their time in the outdoors, sheltering only for the night or in inclement weather, and to a large degree nomadic or semi-nomadic.
In the Early Neolithic 6,—5, BC , a village of — persons occupied most of the area of the palace and the slopes to the north and west.
They lived in one- or two-room square houses of mud-brick walls set on socles of stone, either field stone or recycled stone artifacts.
The inner walls were lined with mud-plaster. The roofs were flat, composed of mud over branches. The residents dug hearths at various locations in the center of the main room.
The walls were at right angles. The door was centered. Large stones were used for support under points of greater stress.
The fact that distinct sleeping cubicles for individuals was not the custom suggests storage units of some sort.
The settlement of the Middle Neolithic 5,—4, BC , housed — people in more substantial and presumably more family-private homes.
Construction was the same, except the windows and doors were timbered, a fixed, raised hearth occupied the center of the main room, and pilasters and other raised features cabinets, beds occupied the perimeter.
The presence of the house, which is unlikely to have been a private residence like the others, suggests a communal or public use; i.
In the Late or Final Neolithic two different but overlapping classification systems, around 4,—3, BC , the population increased dramatically.
It is believed that the first Cretan palaces were built soon after c. These palaces, which were to set the pattern of organisation in Crete and Greece through the second millennium, were a sharp break from the Neolithic village system that had prevailed thus far.
The building of the palaces implies greater wealth and a concentration of authority, both political and religious. It is suggested that they followed eastern models such as those at Ugarit on the Syrian coast and Mari on the upper Euphrates.
The early palaces were destroyed during Middle Minoan II, sometime before c. All the palaces had large central courtyards which may have been used for public ceremonies and spectacles.
Living quarters, storage rooms and administrative centres were positioned around the court and there were also working quarters for skilled craftsmen.
The palace of Knossos was by far the largest, covering three acres with its main building alone and five acres when separate out-buildings are considered.
It had a monumental staircase leading to state rooms on an upper floor. A ritual cult centre was on the ground floor. The palace stores occupied sixteen rooms, the main feature in these being the pithoi that were large storage jars up to five feet tall.
They were mainly used for storage of oil, wool, wine, and grain. Smaller and more valuable objects were stored in lead-lined cists.
The palace had bathrooms, toilets, and a drainage system. The orchestral area was rectangular, unlike later Athenian models, and they were probably used for religious dances.
Building techniques at Knossos were typical. The foundations and lower course were stonework with the whole built on a timber framework of beams and pillars.
The main structure was built of large, unbaked bricks. The roof was flat with a thick layer of clay over brushwood. Internal rooms were brightened by light-wells and columns of wood, many fluted, were used to lend both support and dignity.
The chambers and corridors were decorated with frescoes showing scenes from everyday life and scenes of processions. Warfare is conspicuously absent.
The fashions of the time may be seen in depictions of women in various poses. They had elaborately dressed hair and wore long dresses with flounced skirts and puffed sleeves.
Their bodices were tightly drawn in round their waists and their breasts were exposed. The prosperity of Knossos was primarily based upon the development of native Cretan resources such as oil, wine, and wool.
Another factor was the expansion of trade. Thucydides accepted the tradition and added that Minos cleared the sea of pirates, increased the flow of trade and colonised many Aegean islands.
There seem to have been strong Minoan connections with Rhodes, Miletus, and Samos. Cretan influence may be seen in the earliest scripts found in Cyprus.
The main market for Cretan wares was the Cyclades where there was a demand for pottery, especially the stone vases. It is not known whether the islands were subject to Crete or just trading partners, but there certainly was strong Cretan influence.
This also applies to the mainland, because both tradition and archaeology indicate strong links between Crete and Athens. The main legend here is the Minotaur story wherein Athens was subject to Knossos and paying tribute.
The legend concerns a creature living in a labyrinth who was half-man and half-bull. Bulls are frequently featured on pottery and frescoes found at Knossos, where the intricate layout of the palace might suggest a labyrinth.
One of the most common cult-symbols, often seen on palace walls, is the double-headed axe called the labrys , which is a Carian word for that type of tool or weapon.
At the height of Cretan power around 1, BC, the palaces at Mallia, Phaestus, and Zakro were destroyed along with smaller settlements elsewhere.
Only Knossos remained and it survived until c. At the time of its destruction, it was occupied by Greeks, whose presence is suggested by a new emphasis on weapons and warfare in both art and burial.
Mycenaean-style chamber tombs had been adopted and there was mainland influence on pottery styles. Sir Arthur Evans found the Linear B tablets at Knossos and, although the writing was different from the Linear A ones at Phaestus and elsewhere, he thought they were a development of the first and so called them Linear B.
Despite speculation that Knossos was destroyed by the volcanic eruption on Santorini , it is generally accepted that the cause was human violence following an invasion of Crete by Greeks from the Argolid , most probably Mycenaean.
Knossos was still prosperous at the time of its destruction c. Explanations for its destruction are speculative, but a likely reason is that the Mycenaeans, now prospering on the mainland, decided to remove a rival power.
In Greek mythology, King Minos dwelt in a palace at Knossos. He had Daedalus construct a labyrinth , a very large maze by some connected with the double-bladed axe, or labrys in which to retain his son, the Minotaur.
Daedalus also built a dancing floor for Queen Ariadne. As far as is currently known, it was William Stillman, the American consul who published Kalokairinos' discoveries, who, seeing the sign of the double axe on the massive walls partly uncovered by Kalokairinos, first associated the complex with the labyrinth of legend, calling the ruins "labyrinthine".
The myth of the Minotaur tells that Theseus, a prince from Athens, whose father is an ancient Greek king named Aegeus , the basis for the name of the Greek sea the Aegean Sea , sailed to Crete, where he was forced to fight a terrible creature called the Minotaur.
The Minotaur was a half man, half bull, and was kept in the Labyrinth — a building like a maze — by King Minos, the ruler of Crete. The king's daughter, Ariadne, fell in love with Theseus.
Before he entered the Labyrinth to fight the Minotaur, Ariadne gave him a ball of thread which he unwound as he went into the Labyrinth so that he could find his way back by following it.
Theseus killed the Minotaur, and then he and Ariadne fled from Crete, escaping her angry father. As it turns out, there probably was an association of the word labyrinth , whatever its etymology, with ancient Crete.
The sign of the double axe was used throughout the Mycenaean world as an apotropaic mark : its presence on an object would prevent it from being "killed".
Axes were scratched on many of the stones of the palace. It appears in pottery decoration and is a motif of the Shrine of the Double Axes at the palace, as well as of many shrines throughout Crete and the Aegean.
And finally, it appears in Linear B on Knossos Tablet Gg as da-pu 2 -ri-to-jo po-ti-ni-ja, which probably represents the Mycenaean Greek, Daburinthoio potniai , "to the mistress of the Labyrinth," recording the distribution of one jar of honey.
Fieldwork in revealed that during the early Iron Age, Knossos was rich in imports and was nearly three times larger than indicated by earlier excavations.
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Altri scienziati hanno contestato certi risultati di Evans. In grandissima parte si deve a lui la scoperta dello splendore del mondo minoico, che fino alla sua epoca si rifletteva solo nella mitologia greca.
Dopo la sua morte, gli scavi di Cnosso, che continuano fino a oggi, sono stati intrapresi dalla Scuola Britannica di Atene.
Come gli altri palazzi di Creta, anche quello di Cnosso costituiva il centro politico, religioso ed economico dell'impero marittimo minoico e possedeva inoltre un carattere sacro.
Il "secondo palazzo" fu costruito all'inizio del XVI secolo a. Il palazzo di Cnosso era costruito intorno a un cortile in terra battuta dove si esibivano dei ginnasti che volteggiavano sui tori, animale sacro per i cretesi, sfidando la morte come i gladiatori del Colosseo.
Infatti nel mito si dice che il palazzo era stato progettato dall' architetto ateniese Dedalo aiutato dal figlio Icaro mito di Dedalo e Icaro.
A Cnosso vi era una fiorita cultura degli affreschi.