1- Samurai können 2 Schwerter besitzen (Katana und Wakizashi). Ninja trug normalerweise keine Schwerter. Einige Ninjas hatten nur ein. Ninja und Samurai waren die Krieger des vorindustriellen Japans. Wir zeigen die Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Kriegerarten. Jetzt lesen! Im Gegensatz zu den Samurai, den Rittern des alten Japan, kämpften Ninja im Verborgenen und galten deswegen oft als unehrenhaft. Das Wort Ninja besteht aus.
Samurai Schwerter NinjaNinja. Kundschafter als bedeutende militärische Einheit. Wenn es darum ging, feindliche Stellungen zu beobachten oder im Lager der Gegner zu spionieren. Geschichte der Burg, Samurai und Ninja. Geschichte der Burg. Bauart. Die aufgrund der schwarzen Fassade auch als. Ninja gehören, wie auch die Samurai (jap. 侍), zu den bekanntesten Gestalten des alten Japans, wobei zwischen der tatsächlichen Geschichte und der späteren.
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Magical talents aside, just how accurate is our modern outlook on samurai and ninjas? To find out, we interviewed three historians — and learned some surprising things in the process.
Japanese history is broken down into eras and periods. Particularly relevant to our discussion are the Sengoku Period of to and the successive Tokugawa or "Edo" Period that lasted until The Tokugawa Period takes its name from a shogun family that assumed control of Japan in Shoguns were hereditary military dictators who'd been ruling the country since On paper, they served Japan's emperors.
Yet in practice, these figures were far more powerful and it was they who truly called the shots. Earlier centuries had been plagued by constant warfare.
But things stayed calm under the Tokugawa regime. International trade was tightly regulated and the shoguns took pains to discourage political squabbling.
This was also a time when Japan redefined its relationship with samurai. As Thomas Conlan — a professor of East Asian history at Princeton University — told us via email, "The samurai became an identifiable social status only in the s.
Evidence for this can be seen in historical documents, which began to refer to stealthy soldiers as shinobi during the Sengoku period.
The ninja emerged as mercenaries in the 15th century, where they were recruited as spies, raiders, arsonists and even terrorists.
Amongst the samurai, a sense of ritual and decorum was observed, where one was expected to fight or duel openly. Combined with the unrest of the Sengoku period , these factors created a demand for men willing to commit deeds considered disreputable for conventional warriors.
At the bottom was the genin "lower person" , field agents drawn from the lower class and assigned to carry out actual missions.
From these regions, villages devoted to the training of ninja first appeared. There was a retainer of the family of Kawai Aki-no-kami of Iga, of pre-eminent skill in shinobi , and consequently for generations the name of people from Iga became established.
Likewise, a supplement to the Nochi Kagami , a record of the Ashikaga shogunate , confirms the same Iga origin:. Since then successive generations of Iga men have been admired.
This is the origin of the fame of the men of Iga. A distinction is to be made between the ninja from these areas, and commoners or samurai hired as spies or mercenaries.
They were tasked to raid an outpost of the Imagawa clan. Miura Yoemon, a ninja in Tokugawa's service, recruited shinobi from the Iga region, and sent 10 ninja into Osaka Castle in an effort to foster antagonism between enemy commanders.
A final but detailed record of ninja employed in open warfare occurred during the Shimabara Rebellion — Suspecting that the castle's supplies might be running low, the siege commander Matsudaira Nobutsuna ordered a raid on the castle's provisions.
Under the cloak of darkness, ninja disguised as defenders infiltrated the castle, capturing a banner of the Christian cross. We dispersed spies who were prepared to die inside Hara castle.
As the siege went on, the extreme shortage of food later reduced the defenders to eating moss and grass. With the fall of Hara Castle , the Shimabara Rebellion came to an end, and Christianity in Japan was forced underground.
After the Shimabara Rebellion, there were almost no major wars or battles until the bakumatsu era. To earn a living, ninja had to be employed by the governments of their Han domain , or change their profession.
Many lords still hired ninja, not for battle but as bodyguards or spies. Many former ninja were employed as security guards by the Tokugawa Shogunate , though the role of espionage was transferred to newly created organizations like the Onmitsu and the Oniwaban.
A graduate master course opened in It is located in Iga now Mie Prefecture. There are approximately 3 student enrollments per year. Students must pass an admission test about Japanese history and be able to read historical ninja documents.
In , the 45 year old Genichi Mitsuhashi was the first student to graduate from the master course of ninja studies at Mie University.
For 2 years he studied historical records and the traditions of the martial art. Similar to the original ninja, by day he was a farmer and grew vegetables while he did ninja studies and trained martial arts in the afternoon.
In the early 18th century, shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune founded the oniwaban "garden keepers" , an intelligence agency and secret service.
However, there is no written link between the earlier shinobi and the later oniwaban. They travelled in disguise to other territories to judge the situation of the enemy, they would inveigle their way into the midst of the enemy to discover gaps, and enter enemy castles to set them on fire, and carried out assassinations, arriving in secret.
Espionage was the chief role of the ninja. With the aid of disguises, the ninja gathered information on enemy terrain and building specifications, as well as obtaining passwords and communiques.
The aforementioned supplement to the Nochi Kagami briefly describes the ninja's role in espionage:. They observed hidden things, and were taken as being friends.
Arson was the primary form of sabotage practiced by the ninja, who targeted castles and camps. This morning, the sixth day of the 11th month of Tenbun 10 , the Iga- shu entered Kasagi castle in secret and set fire to a few of the priests' quarters.
They also set fire to outbuildings in various places inside the San-no-maru. They captured the ichi-no-maru inner bailey and the ni-no-maru second bailey.
In , Rokkaku Yoshikata employed a team of ninja to set fire to Sawayama Castle. In a technique dubbed bakemono-jutsu "ghost technique" , his men stole a lantern bearing the enemy's family crest mon , and proceeded to make replicas with the same mon.
By wielding these lanterns, they were allowed to enter the castle without a fight. Once inside, the ninja set fire to the castle, and Yoshitaka's army would later emerge victorious.
In , commanders acting under Kizawa Nagamasa hired three Iga ninja of genin rank to assist the conquest of a fortress in Maibara.
Rokkaku Yoshitaka, the same man who had hired Iga ninja just years earlier, was the fortress holder—and target of attack. The Asai Sandaiki writes of their plans: "We employed shinobi-no-mono of Iga They were contracted to set fire to the castle".
When the fire attack did not begin as scheduled, the Iga men told the commanders, who were not from the region, that they could not possibly understand the tactics of the shinobi.
They then threatened to abandon the operation if they were not allowed to act on their own strategy.
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During the Warring States period in Japan, the late 15th to lateth century, many military commanders in Japan battled to unify the country.
Some of the most powerful samurai were from central Japan. From among these powerful samurai, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, known as the three great heroes, became the ultimate champions of the warring states period and brought peace to Japan.